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Frequently asked questions Find your answers here. Samsung Pay is a secure and easy-to-use mobile payment service which can be used to make purchases with almost every retailer in Singapore.

It enables the use of both credit and debit cards by leveraging on a new proprietary technology called Magnetic Secure Transmission MST and Near Field Communication NFC to make mobile payments more accessible to both merchants and consumers.

The current list of Samsung Pay supported cards includes: New flagship devices will be Samsung Pay compatible. If you can use your card in the country you are travelling to, you should be able to use Samsung Pay to make your payment.

Samsung Pay offers a simple and convenient payment experience that is quicker than searching through your wallet or purse. Launch Samsung Pay by either swiping up from the home button.

Select the card you want to pay with by swiping left or right. Authenticate with your fingerprint or iris and tap your phone on either the MST card reader or NFC reader to complete the transaction.

Alternatively, enter your 4-digit Samsung Pay PIN if you have chosen not to use fingerprint or iris features. Samsung Pay is currently enabling simple and secure in-store payments and online purchases.

Cancelling a payment made with Samsung Pay is the same as a physical card. The exact process will depend on the policies of your card issuer and the merchant you made the purchase from.

If you return an item paid for with Samsung Pay, the store may require you to tap your phone onto either the MST card reader or the NFC reader to complete the return.

Samsung Pay requires an active internet data connection for card registration and activation. However, an active internet data connection is not required to make in-store purchases.

Ideally, the device should connect to the internet once per day to ensure that Samsung Pay stays updated. Most cards will allow you to make up to 10 transactions before you will need to connect to the internet and refresh the Samsung Pay information.

The latest 10 transactions made with Samsung Pay are viewable in the Samsung Pay app for one month from the time of purchase.

Displaying transaction history is not available for all card types or card issuers. Samsung Pay may not show your transaction history depending on the policies set by your card issuer.

The card displayed in Samsung Pay may not always exactly match the physical card. The key points to look for are: The payment cards on Samsung Pay are digital versions of your physical payment cards.

If you lose your original payment card and then receive a replacement card, you may need to remove the original payment card from Samsung Pay and register the new replacement card.

For your convenience, many card issuers will link your new physical card number to your digital card number in Samsung Pay.

This allows you to still have access to your purchasing accounts while you wait for the new physical card to arrive. When you disable Samsung Pay or remove a registered card, you are only suspending the token, or digital card number, that has been assigned to your device for that card.

If you wish to suspend you physical card, please contact your card issuer for assistance. In rare cases, the merchant may ask the you for the last four digits of the card number.

You will need to provide the last four digits of the digital card number, instead of the last four digits of the physical card. For ease of use, it is located on the left side of the card on the Samsung Pay screen, and in the main app when viewing your registered cards.

The "retry" button appears when the countdown timer has reached its end and the device has not detected a MST or NFC payment or has not received a notification of a successful payment.

The "retry" button allows you to restart the payment process without re-authorisation using your fingerprint or Samsung Pay PIN. In addition, if a payment success notification is received, the retry button will not be shown.

To use Samsung Pay, you need: Cards can be either automatically registered by scanning your physical card with Samsung Pay or manually inputting the card information.

Then, depending on the policies set by your bank, Samsung Pay will prompt you to verify your identity through a text message, or a phone call.

You can register up to 10 payment cards in Samsung Pay. The total number of devices you can register a card may vary. Contact your card issuer for more details on the number of devices you can register your card on.

The average amount of time between the request for activation and approval will be within minutes, but can take up to 10 minutes after any additional verification requirements to be met.

If this amount of time has been exceeded, remove the card from Samsung Pay and register it again. Contact your card issuer for assistance if you continue to encounter issues.

We suggest you contact card issuer for further information. Not all card types are eligible to use with Samsung Pay. In addition, there may be other steps required prior to registering a card with Samsung Pay.

Only your card issuer will have these details. However, for the best experience, the device should have a SIM card installed.

However, attempting to register and activate a card while you are outside Singapore may require you to contact your bank during the registration process.

There are no restrictions on adding the same payment card to multiple devices. The total number of devices you can add for the same card may vary with the card issuer.

For additional information, contact your card issuer. When you open Samsung Pay for the first time, you will be prompted to sign in to a Samsung account.

If you do not have an account, you can create one at that point in time. In addition, you can verify either with your irises, fingerprint or a 4-digit PIN when making purchases.

Tokenisation is a method of replacing your sensitive payment card information Card Number, Expiration Date, Security code, etc.

Normal applications and malware have no access to the information in a Secure Environment. Samsung KNOX runs scans to see if your device is secure.

Samsung KNOX will permanently disable Samsung Pay on a compromised device in order to protect your payment information. Samsung Pay does not change the way your payment information is stored or handled when you make purchases.

Your payment information will continue to be managed by your card network and card issuer. You would need to register your cards again if you were to change your phone.

Formatting your device will remove all payment cards registered on your device. If your device is lost or stolen, your payment information will not be accessible without your fingerprint or Samsung Pay PIN.

MST replicates a card swipe by wirelessly transmitting magnetic waves from the supported Samsung device to a standard card reader.

MST turns every card reader into a contactless payment receiver. The fingerprint scanner is very accurate.

It has a "False-Acceptance Rate" less than 0. Samsung Pay will remove the data from the app and de-register all linked cards if the fingerprint is not recognised after 20 consecutive attempts, and if the Samsung Pay PIN has not been entered correctly.

If you have a device that supports Iris scanning, you can use Iris as a form of authentication. Please follow the steps below: Please check whether you have registered your Iris in your device.

If not, please register your Iris in your device. Launch Samsung Pay app, select Settings. Select Iris and click on the Irises button.

Position your device for Iris verification. On the Apps screen, tap Settings. Tap Lock screen and security. To use your irises to unlock your device, you must set a pattern, PIN, or password.

Remember it, as you will need to use it when the device has been restarted or device has not been used for more than 24 hours. Before using the iris recognition camera and LED, read disclaimer and keep the precautions in mind.

To register only one of your irises, tap "You can choose to register only 1 iris. And, remove your glasses or contact lenses because wearing glasses or contacts when unlocking your device or verifying your identify may cause the device to have difficulty recognizing your irises.

Keep your eyes open fully and look at the top of the screen. Iris recognition may not work properly in direct sunlight. For best results, avoid direct sunlight and perform this process indoors.

Also, keep the camera clean as dirt and debris on the iris camera, LED sensor, or proximity sensor may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

Position your eyes inside the circles on the screen and open your eyes wide. The iris recognition camera will scan your irises. When you swipe in any direction on the locked screen, the iris recognition screen will appear.

Look at the screen to scan your irises. If your iris is not recognized within 10 seconds or if you are too close, the device will automatically stop iris recognition to protect your eyes.

Dirt and debris on the iris camera, LED sensor, proximately sensor may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

No, you are limited to only having 1 iris registered at any point in time to be used for authentication purposes per device.

Yes, It is possible to use both iris scan and fingerprint authentication together. Simply select your preferred method during authentication.

Wearing glasses with a strong prescription, sunglasses or color contact lenses may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

If you are wearing such lenses, remove them before registering your irises. And, when wearing glasses, the light reflected from glass surface can interfere with the sensor, leading to failure in iris recognition in some cases.

If it is the case, please try taking your glasses off or adjust the angle of sight. Iris information is digitised and saved in the trust zone as an encryption code.

All payment information in Samsung Pay will be deleted. You will need to set up Samsung Pay and add your payment card information again. When performing a factory data reset, all payment information in Samsung Pay will be deleted.

You will need to set up and add your payment card information on Samsung Pay again after your device has been reset.

Please contact the card issuer and verify you are adding an eligible payment card. Some cards from participating banks may not be supported in Samsung Pay.

Samsung Pay also requires an active internet data connection when adding a payment card. Payments have to be authenticated by your secure PIN.

Samsung Pay on Gear has launched in Singapore on 18th November If you are using a non-Samsung device: If you are using a Samsung device: You can register your cards through Samsung Gear App.

Launch Samsung Gear App on your phone. Connect your phone to Gear via Bluetooth if it is not already connected.

Such radicals can be identified and studied by EPR. Organic and inorganic radicals can be detected in electrochemical systems and in materials exposed to UV light.

It can be applied to a wide range of materials such as carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, silica or other silicates. Medical and biological applications of EPR also exist.

Although radicals are very reactive, and so do not normally occur in high concentrations in biology, special reagents have been developed to spin-label molecules of interest.

These reagents are particularly useful in biological systems. Specially-designed nonreactive radical molecules can attach to specific sites in a biological cell , and EPR spectra can then give information on the environment of these so-called spin labels or spin probes.

Spin-labeled fatty acids have been extensively used to study dynamic organisation of lipids in biological membranes, [8] lipid-protein interactions [9] and temperature of transition of gel to liquid crystalline phases.

This method is suitable for measuring gamma and x-rays , electrons, protons, and high- linear energy transfer LET radiation of doses in the 1 Gy to kGy range.

This can be a particularly severe problem in studying reactions in liquids. An alternative approach is to slow down reactions by studying samples held at cryogenic temperatures, such as 77 K liquid nitrogen or 4.

An example of this work is the study of radical reactions in single crystals of amino acids exposed to x-rays, work that sometimes leads to activation energies and rate constants for radical reactions.

The study of radiation-induced free radicals in biological substances for cancer research poses the additional problem that tissue contains water, and water due to its electric dipole moment has a strong absorption band in the microwave region used in EPR spectrometers.

Radiation damage over long periods of time creates free radicals in tooth enamel, which can then be examined by EPR and, after proper calibration, dated.

Alternatively, material extracted from the teeth of people during dental procedures can be used to quantify their cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation.

People exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl disaster have been examined by this method. Radiation-sterilized foods have been examined with EPR spectroscopy, the aim being to develop methods to determine whether a particular food sample has been irradiated and to what dose.

EPR measurement of asphaltene content is a function of spin density and solvent polarity. Prior work dating to the s has demonstrated the ability to measure vanadium content to sub-ppm levels.

In the field of quantum computing , pulsed EPR is used to control the state of electron spin qubits in materials such as diamond, silicon and gallium arsenide.

High-field high-frequency EPR measurements are sometimes needed to detect subtle spectroscopic details. However, for many years the use of electromagnets to produce the needed fields above 1.

The first multifunctional millimeter EPR spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid was described in the early s by Prof.

EPR experiments often are conducted at X and, less commonly, Q bands, mainly due to the ready availability of the necessary microwave components which originally were developed for radar applications.

A second reason for widespread X and Q band measurements is that electromagnets can reliably generate fields up to about 1 tesla. However, the low spectral resolution over g -factor at these wavebands limits the study of paramagnetic centers with comparatively low anisotropic magnetic parameters.

This was demonstrated experimentally in the study of various biological, polymeric and model systems at D-band EPR. The microwave bridge contains both the microwave source and the detector.

Immediately after the microwave source there is an isolator which serves to attenuate any reflections back to the source which would result in fluctuations in the microwave frequency.

Along both paths there is a variable attenuator that facilitates the precise control of the flow of microwave power. This in turn allows for accurate control over the intensity of the microwaves subjected to the sample.

On the reference arm, after the variable attenuator there is a phase shifter that sets a defined phase relationship between the reference and reflected signal which permits phase sensitive detection.

Most EPR machines are reflection spectrometers, meaning that the detector should only be exposed to microwave radiation coming back from the cavity.

This is achieved by the use of a device known as the circulator which directs the microwave radiation from the branch that is heading towards the cavity into the cavity.

Reflected microwave radiation after absorption by the sample is then passed through the circulator towards the detector, ensuring it does not go back to the microwave source.

The reference signal and reflected signal are combined and passed to the detector diode which converts the microwave power into an electrical current.

In order to obtain optimal sensitivity as well as quantitative information the diode should be operating within the linear region.

To ensure the detector is operating at that level the reference arm serves to provide a "bias". In an EPR machine the magnetic assembly includes the magnetic with a dedicated power supply as well as a field sensor or regulator such as a Hall probe.

EPR machines use one of two types of magnet which is determined by the operating microwave frequency which determine the range of magnetic field strengths required.

The first is an electromagnet which are generally capable of generating field strengths of up to 1. In order to generate field strengths appropriate for W-band and higher frequency operation superconducting magnets are employed.

The magnetic field is homogeneous across the sample volume and has a high stability at static field. The microwave resonator is designed to enhance the microwave magnetic field at the sample in order to induce EPR transitions.

It is a metal box with a rectangular or cylindrical shape that resonates with microwaves like an organ pipe with sound waves.

At the resonance frequency of the cavity microwaves remain inside the cavity and are not reflected back. Resonance means the cavity stores microwave energy and its ability to do this is given by the quality factor Q , defined by the following equation:.

The higher the value of Q the higher the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The energy dissipated is the energy lost in one microwave period.

Energy may be lost to the side walls of the cavity as microwaves may generate currents which in turn generate heat.

A consequence of resonance is the creation of a standing wave inside the cavity. Electromagnetic standing waves have their electric and magnetic field components exactly out of phase.

This provides an advantage as the electric field provides nonresonant absorption of the microwaves, which in turn increases the dissipated energy and reduces Q.

To achieve the largest signals and hence sensitivity the sample is positioned such that it lies within the magnetic field maximum and the electric field minimum.

When the magnetic field strength is such that an absorption event occurs, the value of Q will be reduced due to the extra energy loss.

This results in a change of impedance which serves to stop the cavity from being critically coupled. This means microwaves will now be reflected back to the detector in the microwave bridge where an EPR signal is detected.

The dynamics of electron spins are best studied with pulsed measurements. The spin—lattice relaxation time can be measured with an inversion recovery experiment.

A Hahn echo decay experiment can be used to measure the dephasing time, as shown in the animation below. The size of the echo is recorded for different spacings of the two pulses.

Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance could be advanced into electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy ENDOR , which utilizes waves in the radio frequencies.

Since different nuclei with unpaired electrons respond to different wavelengths, radio frequencies are required at times.

Since the results of the ENDOR gives the coupling resonance between the nuclei and the unpaired electron, the relationship between them can be determined.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dating technique, see Electron spin resonance dating. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance.

Splitting and coupling constants are proportional, but not identical.

Bei der eps-giropay Zahlung handelt es sich um ein Verfahren, das für den Kunden einfach und praktisch ist. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Es sind keine zusätzlichen Registrierungen oder weitere Zugangscodes erforderlich. In meiner Bank informieren. Tipico casino bonus auszahlen eps-Überweisung ist tarjei einfache und sichere Online-Bezahlverfahren der österreichischen Banken für Einkäufe im Internet über das vertraute Online Banking. Wenn Aufstellung nationalmannschaft 2019 unseren Service weiterhin nutzen, gehen wir davon aus, dass Sie der Verwendung von Magic casino böblingen öffnungszeiten zustimmen. Sie müssen nicht mehr auf den Zahlungseingang warten. Somit sind Änderungen durch den Käufer und daher auch Irrtümer ausgeschlossen. Wie funktioniert die eps-Überweisung? Sie öffnen Ihren Shop für zahlreiche potenzielle Käuferinnen und Käufer — und das nicht nur in Österreich: Sie verwendet die bestmöglichen Verschlüsselungs- und Prüfsysteme, wie sie auch bei eBanking zum Einsatz kommen. Sie müssen nicht mehr auf den Zahlungseingang warten. Mit der eps-Überweisung können Sie Ihre Steuern direkt bezahlen — einfach per Mausklick und ohne zusätzlichen Aufwand. Die Voraussetzung für Verbraucherinnen bzw. Profitieren Sie von den einfachen Zahlungsmethoden wie der eps-Überweisung und dem Lastschriftverfahren. Einfach, praktisch und sicher bezahlen per eps-Überweisung: Sie öffnen Ihren Shop für zahlreiche potenzielle Käuferinnen und Käufer — und das nicht nur in Österreich: Übermittlung von Belegdaten durch die Banken auf Zahlungsverkehr per eps um. In der ersten Jahreshälfte stellten die Finanzämter in Österreich von Zahlschein bzw. Die eps Online-Überweisung ist das einfache und sichere Online-Bezahlverfahren der österreichischen Banken für Einkäufe im Internet über das vertraute Internetbanking. Die Bezahlung erfolgt direkt über das gewohnte Internetbanking Ihres Bankinstitutes — vorausgesetzt Ihre Bank bietet die Zahlungsmöglichkeit eps an. Die Voraussetzung für Verbraucherinnen bzw. Es sind keine zusätzlichen Registrierungen oder weitere Zugangscodes erforderlich. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Wir verwenden Cookies, um unsere Binary option robot erfahrungen für Sie möglichst benutzerfreundlich zu gestalten. Sofortige Zahlungsbestätigung Sie als Händler erhalten eine Echtzeit-Zahlungsbestätigung, sobald der Bankrechner den entgegengenommenen Zahlungsauftrag casino kostüm geprüft hat. Casino paypal accept zum Thema Online Banking. Um mittels eps-Überweisung zahlen zu können ist keine Registrierung notwendig!

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Because no signature or PIN verification is typically required, contactless purchases are typically limited to small value sales.

In , MasterCard Advisors wrote that consumers are likely to spend more money using their cards due to the ease of small transactions. Contactless smart cards that function as stored-value cards are becoming popular for use as transit system farecards , such as the Oyster card or RioCard.

These can often store non-currency value such as monthly passes in additional to fare value purchased with cash or electronic payment.

Mobil was one of the most notable early adopters of a similar technology, and offered their " Speedpass " contactless payment system for participating Mobil gas stations as early as In March , Eat became the first restaurant chain to adopt contactless.

The first contactless cards in the UK were issued by Barclaycard in Telecom operators are starting to get involved in contactless payments via the use of near field communication phones.

In January , Barclaycard partnered with mobile phone firm Orange , to launch a contactless credit card in the UK. Softcard formerly known as Isis mobile wallet , Cityzi and Quick Tap wallets for example, use a secure SIM card to store encrypted personal information.

Contactless payments with enabled mobile phones still occur on a small scale, but every month an increasing number of mobile phones are certified.

The partnership will promote the development of "contactless mobile payment systems" by creating a universal platform in Europe for it.

The number of completed contactless journeys has now exceeded m. On Friday 18 December, the busiest single day in , a record 1.

It can be used at any NFC supporting terminal for transactions of unlimited amount however for transactions over the floor limit of 25 EUR a PIN is required to confirm the transaction.

In , contactless payments start to become even broader with wearable technology devices also offering this payment feature.

George Bank reported Depending on the economic space, there may be a payment limit on single transactions, and some contactless cards can only be used a certain number of times before customers are asked for their PIN.

Where PIN is supported, the contactless part of the card remains non-functional until a standard chip and PIN transaction has been executed.

Under fraud guarantee standards U. Because no signature or PIN verification is typically required, contactless purchases are typically limited to a set maximum amount per transaction, known as a floor limit.

Formatting your device will remove all payment cards registered on your device. If your device is lost or stolen, your payment information will not be accessible without your fingerprint or Samsung Pay PIN.

MST replicates a card swipe by wirelessly transmitting magnetic waves from the supported Samsung device to a standard card reader.

MST turns every card reader into a contactless payment receiver. The fingerprint scanner is very accurate. It has a "False-Acceptance Rate" less than 0.

Samsung Pay will remove the data from the app and de-register all linked cards if the fingerprint is not recognised after 20 consecutive attempts, and if the Samsung Pay PIN has not been entered correctly.

If you have a device that supports Iris scanning, you can use Iris as a form of authentication. Please follow the steps below: Please check whether you have registered your Iris in your device.

If not, please register your Iris in your device. Launch Samsung Pay app, select Settings. Select Iris and click on the Irises button.

Position your device for Iris verification. On the Apps screen, tap Settings. Tap Lock screen and security. To use your irises to unlock your device, you must set a pattern, PIN, or password.

Remember it, as you will need to use it when the device has been restarted or device has not been used for more than 24 hours.

Before using the iris recognition camera and LED, read disclaimer and keep the precautions in mind. To register only one of your irises, tap "You can choose to register only 1 iris.

And, remove your glasses or contact lenses because wearing glasses or contacts when unlocking your device or verifying your identify may cause the device to have difficulty recognizing your irises.

Keep your eyes open fully and look at the top of the screen. Iris recognition may not work properly in direct sunlight. For best results, avoid direct sunlight and perform this process indoors.

Also, keep the camera clean as dirt and debris on the iris camera, LED sensor, or proximity sensor may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

Position your eyes inside the circles on the screen and open your eyes wide. The iris recognition camera will scan your irises.

When you swipe in any direction on the locked screen, the iris recognition screen will appear. Look at the screen to scan your irises.

If your iris is not recognized within 10 seconds or if you are too close, the device will automatically stop iris recognition to protect your eyes.

Dirt and debris on the iris camera, LED sensor, proximately sensor may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

No, you are limited to only having 1 iris registered at any point in time to be used for authentication purposes per device.

Yes, It is possible to use both iris scan and fingerprint authentication together. Simply select your preferred method during authentication. Wearing glasses with a strong prescription, sunglasses or color contact lenses may cause the device to have difficulty recognising your irises.

If you are wearing such lenses, remove them before registering your irises. And, when wearing glasses, the light reflected from glass surface can interfere with the sensor, leading to failure in iris recognition in some cases.

If it is the case, please try taking your glasses off or adjust the angle of sight. Iris information is digitised and saved in the trust zone as an encryption code.

All payment information in Samsung Pay will be deleted. You will need to set up Samsung Pay and add your payment card information again.

When performing a factory data reset, all payment information in Samsung Pay will be deleted. You will need to set up and add your payment card information on Samsung Pay again after your device has been reset.

Please contact the card issuer and verify you are adding an eligible payment card. Some cards from participating banks may not be supported in Samsung Pay.

Samsung Pay also requires an active internet data connection when adding a payment card. Payments have to be authenticated by your secure PIN.

Samsung Pay on Gear has launched in Singapore on 18th November If you are using a non-Samsung device: If you are using a Samsung device: You can register your cards through Samsung Gear App.

Launch Samsung Gear App on your phone. Connect your phone to Gear via Bluetooth if it is not already connected.

Tap on "Add card" shown on the screen to register your card. You can either scan your physical cards or enter your cards details to add your cards in Samsung Pay.

Depending on the policies set by your issuing bank, Samsung Pay will prompt you to verify your digital card through a one-time-password OTP via SMS or a phone call to the bank.

Samsung Pay app in your mobile phone is different from Samsung Pay in Gear app. You need to register your cards separately in Samsung Gear app in order to use Samsung Pay on your Gear.

Select your desired credit or debit card, press the Pay button on your Gear and place your Gear near to the POS terminal.

After putting on your Gear, enter PIN once to authenticate the device. Press and hold the Back button to launch Samsung Pay. The last card used or latest card added will be shown If you have more than one card added, select the card you want to pay by swiping left or right, or by rotating the bezel to select card Tap on the "Pay" button to make payment.

Additionally, if a payment success notification is received, the "Retry" button will not be shown. Yes, you can still use Samsung Pay on Gear without connecting it to your phone.

Cards data is synced to Gear from your mobile device via a secured Bluetooth channel. If the Gear is strapped on your wrist, you only have to enter the secure PIN once before all subsequent payments.

If you take the Gear off your wrist, your have to enter the secure PIN each time before putting the Gear into payment mode.

Device should be placed approximately an inch over the NFC or MST area of the payment terminal in order for the payment to work.

After 10 wrong tries, Samsung Pay for Gear will reset. All information and cards registered on the Gear will be deleted.

Search for and select a retailer from the retailer list. You can scan your loyalty card or manually enter the respective card number.

Alternatively, click on "Loyalty cards" in Samsung Pay to add your loyalty card. Activate Favourite Cards when at the check-out counter or cashier.

Swipe right or left to select the loyalty card. If your loyalty card is not added in Favourite Cards, select your card from the banner towards the upper right hand corner of the Favourite Cards screen.

Tap on the card and show its barcode top of screen to the cashier. Alternatively, you can select your card from loyalty cards list.

Note field modulation is unique to continuous wave EPR measurements and spectra resulting from pulsed experiments are presented as absorption profiles.

In practice, EPR samples consist of collections of many paramagnetic species, and not single isolated paramagnetic centers.

If the population of radicals is in thermodynamic equilibrium, its statistical distribution is described by the Maxwell—Boltzmann equation:. Therefore, transitions from the lower to the higher level are more probable than the reverse, which is why there is a net absorption of energy.

The sensitivity of the EPR method i. Therefore, the required parameters are:. In real systems, electrons are normally not solitary, but are associated with one or more atoms.

There are several important consequences of this:. Because the mechanisms of spin—orbit coupling are well understood, the magnitude of the change gives information about the nature of the atomic or molecular orbital containing the unpaired electron.

The principal axes of this tensor are determined by the local fields, for example, by the local atomic arrangement around the unpaired spin in a solid or in a molecule.

Choosing an appropriate coordinate system say, x , y , z allows one to "diagonalize" this tensor, thereby reducing the maximal number of its components from 9 to 3: Here B x , B y and B z are the components of the magnetic field vector in the coordinate system x , y , z ; their magnitudes change as the field is rotated, so does the frequency of the resonance.

For a large ensemble of randomly oriented spins, the EPR spectrum consists of three peaks of characteristic shape at frequencies g xx B 0 , g yy B 0 and g zz B 0: Such situations are commonly observed in powders, and the spectra are therefore called "powder-pattern spectra".

Greater complexity arises because the spin couples with nearby nuclear spins. The magnitude of the coupling is proportional to the magnetic moment of the coupled nuclei and depends on the mechanism of the coupling.

Coupling is mediated by two processes, dipolar through space and isotropic through bond. This coupling introduces additional energy states and, in turn, multi-lined spectra.

In such cases, the spacing between the EPR spectral lines indicates the degree of interaction between the unpaired electron and the perturbing nuclei.

The hyperfine coupling constant of a nucleus is directly related to the spectral line spacing and, in the simplest cases, is essentially the spacing itself.

Two common mechanisms by which electrons and nuclei interact are the Fermi contact interaction and by dipolar interaction. The former applies largely to the case of isotropic interactions independent of sample orientation in a magnetic field and the latter to the case of anisotropic interactions spectra dependent on sample orientation in a magnetic field.

The symbols " a " or " A " are used for isotropic hyperfine coupling constants, while " B " is usually employed for anisotropic hyperfine coupling constants.

In many cases, the isotropic hyperfine splitting pattern for a radical freely tumbling in a solution isotropic system can be predicted.

While it is easy to predict the number of lines, the reverse problem, unraveling a complex multi-line EPR spectrum and assigning the various spacings to specific nuclei, is more difficult.

Note again that the lines in this spectrum are first derivatives of absorptions. A simulation of the observed EPR spectrum is shown at the right and agrees with the line prediction and the expected line intensities.

Note that the smaller coupling constant smaller line spacing is due to the three methoxy hydrogens, while the larger coupling constant line spacing is from the two hydrogens bonded directly to the carbon atom bearing the unpaired electron.

These defined widths are called halfwidths and possess some advantages: In practice, a full definition of linewidth is used. EPR is a sensitive, specific method for studying both radicals formed in chemical reactions and the reactions themselves.

Such radicals can be identified and studied by EPR. Organic and inorganic radicals can be detected in electrochemical systems and in materials exposed to UV light.

It can be applied to a wide range of materials such as carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, silica or other silicates. Medical and biological applications of EPR also exist.

Although radicals are very reactive, and so do not normally occur in high concentrations in biology, special reagents have been developed to spin-label molecules of interest.

These reagents are particularly useful in biological systems. Specially-designed nonreactive radical molecules can attach to specific sites in a biological cell , and EPR spectra can then give information on the environment of these so-called spin labels or spin probes.

Spin-labeled fatty acids have been extensively used to study dynamic organisation of lipids in biological membranes, [8] lipid-protein interactions [9] and temperature of transition of gel to liquid crystalline phases.

This method is suitable for measuring gamma and x-rays , electrons, protons, and high- linear energy transfer LET radiation of doses in the 1 Gy to kGy range.

This can be a particularly severe problem in studying reactions in liquids. An alternative approach is to slow down reactions by studying samples held at cryogenic temperatures, such as 77 K liquid nitrogen or 4.

An example of this work is the study of radical reactions in single crystals of amino acids exposed to x-rays, work that sometimes leads to activation energies and rate constants for radical reactions.

The study of radiation-induced free radicals in biological substances for cancer research poses the additional problem that tissue contains water, and water due to its electric dipole moment has a strong absorption band in the microwave region used in EPR spectrometers.

Radiation damage over long periods of time creates free radicals in tooth enamel, which can then be examined by EPR and, after proper calibration, dated.

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